This is not a transcription but rather a translation of the book into modern English and it is based on various transcriptions of the book, two of which are easy to find online which I referenced heavily, such as The Boke of Kervynge, 1508 ed. transcribed by Daniel Myers and though google books as well as project Gutenburg (see link below) as well as referencing The Boke of Nurture (book in link being edited by Frederick Furnivall). Project Gutenburg also has a copy of this book in the collection “Early English Meals and Manners” available here. A.J.P.K., June 26, 2013
Here begins the book of carving and serving / and all the feats in the year for the service of a prince or any other estate as you shall find each office the service according in this book following.
Terms of a carver
Break that deer
Slice that brawn
“Rere” [probably Parboil] that goose
Lift that swan
Sauce that capon
Spoil [possibly to skin or simply another term for “carve”] that hen
“Fruche” that chicken
“Umbrace” [means to “free”] that mallard
Unlace that rabbit
Dismember that heron
Display that crane
Disfigure that peacock
Unjoint that bittern
“Untache” [unattach?] that curlew
“Alaye” [generally meaning to “mix”, likely cut or carve in this instant] that pheasant
Wing that partridge
Wing that quail
Mince that plover
Thigh that pigeon
Border that pasty
Thigh that woodcock
Thigh all manner of small birds
Timber that fire
Tyere [possibly “tear”] that egg
Chynne [simplified term “split”] that salmon
String that lamprey
Splat [split open] that pike
Sauce that place
Sauce that tench
Splay that bream
Side that haddock
“Culpon” [some sources define as slicing or shreadding] that trout
“Fyne” [typically translates to “fine” but could be “fin”] that Cheuen (translates to “chew”, but in this context could be “Chevin” which is a fish)
“Traffene” that eel
Traunche [likely “portion”] that Sturgeon
“Undertraunche” that porpoise
Tame that crab
Barb that Lobster
Here ends the goodly terms.
Here endeth the
Here Begins the Butler and Pantler
You shal be butler and pantler all the first year/ and you much have the pantry knives/ one knife to square trencher loaves, another to be a chipper/ then chip your sovereigns bread hot and all other bread let it be a day old/ household bread three days old/ trencher bread four days old/ then see that your salt is white and dry/ The plainer made of Ivory two inches broad and three inches long/ & see that your salt cellar lid does not touch the salt/ then see (that) your table clothes, towels and napkins are folded nicely in a chest or hung upon a perch/ then see (that) your knives are nicely polished and your spoons clean/ Then see (that) you have two “Tarryours” (“Terriers” are objects used to bore holes) a larger one and a smaller one, and “Wyne canelles of boxe made accordynge” [This could be Wine tasters turned from box wood, made in the shape of a canelle, as in a rippled or fluted cup. “canel” is usually translated as cinnamon but that is probably not the case here] a sharp gimlet [tool for boring small holes] and faucets. And when you set a pipe “on broche” [the phrase meaning “to tap and set running”] do thus/ set it four finger breaths above the “nether chime upwards” [confusing as chime is the contents of the stomach, or could refer to the humours] leaning/ and then shall the lyes (or lies) never arise. Also see (that) you have in all seasons butter, cheese, apples, pears, nuts, plums, grapes, dates, figs and raisins, compost, green ginger and “chard” [to turn or cease] quince. Serve fasting butter [possibly in reference to a non-dairy butter such as almond butter?], plums, damsoms, cherries and grapes. After meat, pears, nuts, strawberries, whortleberries and hard cheese. Also “Brandrels” [a type of apple described as white] or pippins [a type of apple described as tart and crisp] with caraway in comfits. After supper, roast apples and pears with white powder and hard cheese, beware of goat or cow’s cream, strawberries, whortleberries and junket [a dish from rennet curdled milk], for these will make you sovereign sick but he eat hard cheese/ hard cheese has these operations:/ it will keep the stomach open/ butter is wholesome first and last for it will do away all poisons/ milk, cream and junket they will close the stomach and so does a posset [an alcohol curdled milk drink]/ therefor eat hard cheese and drink “Romney modon” [a heavy, sweet, wine made with the addition of boiled down must]/ beware of green salads and raw fruits for they will make our sovereign sick/ therefore set not much by such meats as will set your teeth on edge therefore eat an almond and hard cheese. But eat not much cheese without Romney modon. Also if diverse drinks of their “fumosytees” [vapours] have displeased your sovereign, let him eat a raw apple and the vapours will cease “measure is a mery mene” [neither means nor measure] & it will be well bled/ abstinence is to be praised when god, therewith, is pleased. Also take good heed of your wines every night with a candle both red wine and sweet wine and see (that) they are no re-boiled or leaking: and wash the pipe heads every night with cold water/ and see (that) you have a “chynchynge” [from the word miserly, could be “to pinch”, then would be “pinching”] iron added and linen clothes if need be/ and if they reboil, you shall know by the hissing/ therefore keep an empty pipe with the lies of coloured rose and draw the re-boiled wine to the lies and it shall help it. Also if your sweet wine pales, draw it into a romney vessel for “lesynge” [falsifying]
Here follows the names of wines.
Red wine / White wine/ claret wine/ osey [a wine from Burgundy], capryke [one source says it is from souther Italy but the place name if from Belgium], campolet [possibly a wine from white grapes called campole], Rhenish wine Malvesy [or Malmsey, a strong sweet wine]/ bastard/ tyerre romney [strong, sweet wine]/ Muscadell [strong, sweet wine]/ Clarry [sweetened/spiced wine]/ raspys [or Raspise]/ vernage [strong, sweet wine]/ vernage wine cut/ Pyment [made with honey and grapes] and hippocras [sweetened/spiced].
To make Hippocras
Take ginger/ pepper/ pepper/ grains [of paradise]/ [cassia?]/ cinnamon, sugar and turnsole/ then see [that] you have five or six bags for your hippocras to run it [through them] & a perch that your runners [straining bags] may hang on/ then you must have 6 pewter basins to stand under your bags/ then see [that] your spice is ready/ & your ginger well pared or beat to powder/ then see [that] your cinnamon sticks are well coloured & sweet cassia is not too gentle in operation cinnamon is hot or dry/ grains of paradise are hot and moist/ ginger/ long pepper and sugar are hot and dry/ turnsole is wholesome/ red wine for colouring. Now know the proportions of your Hippocras then beat your powders each by them self & put them in bladders & hang your bags [making] sure they do not touch each other/ but let each basin touch, let the first basin hold a gallon and each of the other [basins] hold a pottle [2 quarts/1.9 litres]/ then put in your basin a gallon of red wine and into this your powders and stir them well/ Then put them into the first bag and let it run/ then put them into the second bag/ then take a piece in your hand and test if it is strong of ginger/ and season [or flavour] with cinnamon/ and if it is strong of cinnamon/ season it with sugar/ and see that you let it run though six runners [or straining cloths]/ & your Hippocras shall be the finer/ then put your Hippocras into a closed vessel and keep the receipt/ for it will serve for sewes [sewes- stews, broths ~ sewer, someone who sets the table] / then serve your sovereign with wafers and Hippocras. Also see [that] your compost be fair and clean/ and your ale [is] five days old or men drink it/ then keep your house of office clean & courteous of answer to each person/ and see [that] you give no person no pulled drink/ for it will break the scab. And when you lay the cloth, wipe the board clean with a cloth [likely a small cloth for wiping things clean]/ then lay a cloth, which is called a couche [a cover], Have another man (your fellow) at one end [of the cloth] and you holding the other end/ then draw the cloth straight, the fold on the outer edge/ take the outer part and hang it even/ then take the third cloth and lay the fold on the inner edge/ and lay (estat)[area of middle rank] with the upper part half a foot broad/ then cover your cupboard and your ewery with a diaper [type of absorbent weave] towel/ then take your towel about the neck and lay that one side of the towel upon the left arm/ and there on lay your sovereigns napkin/ and lay on your arm sevel loaves of bread with three or four trencher loaves with the end of the towel in the left hand as the manner is/ then take your salte seller in your left hand and take the end of the towel in your right hand to bear in [hold] spoons and knived/ then set your salt on the right side where your sovereign shall sit and on the left side [of] the salt, set your trenchers/ then lay your knives and set your bread on loaf by another/ your spoons and your napkins folded fairly by your bread and trenchers, spoons and knives/ and at every end of the table, set a salt cellar with two trencher loaves/ & if you will, wrap your sovereign’s bread stately. [To do this], you must square and proportion your bread and see that no loaf is bigger than the other/ and then you shall make your wrapper manly/ then take a towel of reynes [fine linen], 2 ½ yards long and take the towel by the end double and lay it on the table/ then take the end of the fold, a handful in your hand and wrap it hard and lay the end so wrapped between two towels upon that end so wrapped, lay your bread, bottom to bottom, six or seven loaves/ then set your bread mannerly in form/ and when your sovereign’s table is thus arranged, cover all the other boards with salt trenchers and cups. Also see your ewery [drinking/washing vessels] be separated with basins and ewers and water hot and cold/ and see [that] you have napkins, cups, and spoons/ & see [that] your pots for wine and ale are clean and to the surnap [cloth for hand-washing or napkin] make your curtesy with a cloth under a fair double napery/ then take the towels end next [to] you/ & the other end of the cloth on the other side of the table and hold these three ends together and fold them together that a pleat pass not a foot abroad/ then lay it even [and] there it should lay. And after measure, wash with that, that is at the rough end of the table/ you must guide it out and the marshal must convey it/ and see [that] on each cloth, the right side be outward and draw it straight/ then you must rise the upper part of the towel and lay it without on groaning/ and at every end of the towel, you must convey half a yard that the sewer may make estate reverently and let it be. And when your sovereign has washed, draw the surnap even/ then bare the surnap to the middle of the board & take it up before your sovereign & bare it into the ewery again. And when your sovereign is set, see [that] your towel be about your neck/ then make your sovereign curtesy/ then uncover your bread & set it by the salt and lay your napkin, knife & spoon before him/ then kneel on your knee until the “purpayne” [pure-bread, definition is unclear, possibly someone who handles this job] pass eight loaves/ & see [that] you set at the end of the table, four loaves at a mass/ and see that every person has a napkin and spoon/ and wait well to the sewer how many dishes be covered and so many cups you cover/ the you serve forth the table mannerly that every man may speak you courtesy [of your courtesy].
Here ends the butler and panter,
Yeoman of the celler and ewery.
And here Follows serving of flesh.
The sewer [def. person who sets, or supervised the serving of the dishes] must sewe [def. act of setting out the dishes] and from the board, convey all manner of potages [food cooked in a pot], meats and sauces and every day common [def. “comon”, possibly to share, such as being in common] with the cook and understand and observe how many dishes shall be and speak with the panter [def. office of the pantry] and officers of the spicery, for fruit that shall be eaten in fasting. Then go to the board of sewing [belonging to the office of the sewer] and see you have officers ready to convey and servants to bare your dishes. Also if marshal squires and servants of arms be there, then serve forth your sovereign without blame.
First you set forth mustard and brawne, pottage, beef [and?] mutton stewed. Pheasant/ swan/ capon/ pig/ venison baked [venison pie]/ custard/ leche and Lombard [probably the dish leche lumbard]. Fritter vaunte with a soteltie, two potages, blanc manger and gelly. For standard venison, roast kid, fawn and cony [mature rabbit]/ bustard, stork, crane peacock with his tail, heron [possibly a young heron], bittern, woodcock, partridge, plover, young rabbits, great birds, larkes/ doucettes [a sweet dish], Paynpuff white leche amber [unsure if this is “paynpuff white” and “leche amber”]/ gelly, cream of almonds/ curlew, brewe [possibly a whimbrel], snipe, quail, sparrow, martin, perch in jelly/ “pety peruys”, Quinces baked, “leche dewgarde”, sage fritter, blandrelles or pippins [both being apples] with caraway comfits, wafers and Hippocras [if] they are agreeable/ Now this feast is done “voyde” [clear] the table.
There ends the sewing [or appropriately: serving] of flesh.
And begins the carving of flesh.
The carver must know the carving and the fair handling of a knife and how he shall bring/fetch all manner of fowl/ your knife must be fair and your hands must be clean and pass not two fingers and a thumb upon your knife. [only two fingers and a thumb should be touching the knife]
In the middle of your hand, set the haft [handle of the knife] sure “unlassynge” [unlacing?] and mincing with two fingers and a thumb.
Carving of bread laying and voiding of crumbs with two fingers and a thumb.
And see that you have the cure [unsure what this means]
Set never on fish, flesh, beast or fowl, more than two fingers and a thumb
Then take your loaf in your left hand and hold your knife surely [and do] not soil the table cloth, but wipe [it] upon your napkin. The take the trencher loaf in your left hand and with the edge of your table knife, take up your trenchers as close [to] the point as you may, then lay four trenchers to you sovereign [at his place on the table] one by another and lay thereon another four trenchers or else two, then take a load in your left hand and pare the loaf round about, then cut the over crust to your sovereign and cut the nether crust and void the paring and touch the loaf no more after it is so served, then cleans the table that the sewer may serve your sovereign.
Also you must know the “fumosytes” [fumosyte are vapors] of fish, flesh and fowl and all manner of sauces according to their appetites. These be the vapours of salt, sour, rancid, fat, fried, nerves, skins, honey, croups [translates as rump but could be crops/gizzards], young feathers, wings [or terminal part of a birds wing], bones, all manner of legs of beasts and fowls the other side for these have fumes, lay them never to your sovereign.
Take you knife in your hand and cut brawn in the dish as it lie and lay it on you sovereigns trencher and [make sure] there is mustard. Venison with frumenty is good for your sovereign, do not touch the venison with your hand but [only] cut it with your knife 12 droughts with the edge of your knife and cut it out into the frumenty. Do the same with peas and bacon. [For] beef chine and mutton, pare the beef [and] cut the mutton and lay it to your sovereign. Beware of fumes [from] salt, nerves, fat, rancid and raw [meat].
In syrup pheasant, partridge, stock dove and chickens in the left hand, take them by the wingtip and with the forepart of your knife, lift up your wings, then mince it into the syrup. Beware of skin, raw [meat] and nerves. Goose, teal, mallard and swan, raise the legs then the wings, lay the body in the middle or in another platter, the winds in the middle and the legs after, lay the brawne [removed meat] between the legs and the wings in the platter.
Capon or henne of Greece, lift the legs then the wings and cast on wine or ale, then mince the winge and give [to] you sovereign.
Pheasant, partridge, plover and lapwing, rise the wings and after the legs.
Woodcock, bittern, egret, snipe, curlew, heron, then raise the legs and let the feet be on still, then the wings.
A crane, rise the wings first and beware of the trumpet in his breast.
Peacock, stork, bustard and “shovyllard” [possibly Shovelers], unlace them as a crane and let the feet be on still.
Quail, sparrow, lark, martin, pigeon, swallow and thrush, the legs first then the wings.
Fawn, kid and lamb, lay the kidney to your sovereign, then lift up the shoulder and give your sovereign a rib.
Roast Venison, cut it in the dish and lay it to your sovereign.
A cony, lay him on the back, cut away the vents [openings] between the hind legs, break the collarbone then raise the sides, then lay your cony in the womb on each side the chine [cut of meat along the backbone], the two sides departed from the chine [splitting the rabbit into two sides and the chine], then lay the bulk chine and sides in the dish.
Also you must mince four slices to one morsel of meat [so] that your sovereign make take it in the sauce.
All bake meats that [are served] hot, open them above [remove the lid] the coffin [the pastry casing] and all that are cold, open them in the midway [sliced open through the pie].
Custard “cheke them” inch square [cut them into 1 inch squares] that your sovereign may eat from them.
Doucettes, pare away the sides and the bottom, beware of fumes.
“Fruyter vaunte”, fritters are good, better are fritter pouch, apple fritters are good hot, and all cold fritters touch not.
Tansy is good, hot worts [pot-herb/vegetable] or gruel of beef or of mutton is good.
Jelly, mortrus [mortrews… dish with ground meat], almond cream, blanc manger [a white dish], jussel [egg/bread dish] and charlet [meat dish with eggs and milk], cabbage and numbles [offal] of a deer are good, beware of all other pottage and dishes.
And begins sauces for all manner of fowls.
Mustard is good with brawn, beef chine, bacon and mutton.
Verjuice [a sour juice from unripe fruit] is good with boiled chickens and capon
Swan with “Chawdrons” [a sauce from entrails]
Beef ribs with garlic, mustard, pepper, verjuice and ginger
Sauce to lamb, pig and fawn
Mustard and sugar to pheasant and cony
Sauce Gamelyne [a sauce, could be “camelyne” sauce or something different] to heron, egret, plover and crane.
To brew curlew, salt, sugar and water of tame
To bustard, shoveller and bittern, sauce “gamelyne”
Woodcock, lapwing, lark, quail, martin, venison and snipe, with white salt
Sparrows and “throstelles” [throstle is another name for the song thrush] with salt and cinnamon
Thus with all meats, sauces shall have the operations.
Here ends the sauces of all manner of fowls and meats.
Here Begins the feasts and service from Easter unto White Sunday
On Easter day and so forth to Pentecost after the serving of the table, there shall be set bread, trenchers and spoons after the estimation of them that shall sit there and thus you shall serve your sovereign, lay trenchers before him/ if he be a great estate, lay five trenchers/ and [if he is] of a lower degree, four trenchers/ and of another degree, three trenchers, then cut bread for your sovereign after you know his conditions, whether it be cut in the middle or pared or else [it is to be] cut in small pieces.
Also you must understand how the meat shall be serves before your sovereign and namely on Easter day after the governance and service of the counter where you were born.
First on that day, you shall serve calf sodden and blessed/ and then sodden eggs with green sauce and set them before the most principal estate/ and that lord because of his high estate shall depart them all about him/ then serve pottage as worts [vegetable/pot-herb], Jowtes [boiled, and thickened, dish of herb/veg] or browes [broth or soup] with beef, mutton or veal/ and capons that [have] been coloured with saffron and bake-meats.
And in the second course, Jussell [egg/bread dish] with mameny [a dish] roated and endoured [painted with egg yolk which is hardened in the heat]/ and pidgeons with bakemeats as tarts, chewets and flans and others after the deception of the cooks.
And at suppertime, diverse sauces of mutton or veal in broche [“manner and meals in olden time”, 1867, F.J. Furnivall, correct this as “broth” but “broche” translates to a skewer or spit] after the ordinance of the steward/ and then chickens with bacon, veal, roast pigeons or lamb and roast kid with the head and the purtenance [offal] on lamb and pigs feet with vinegar and parsley thereon and fried tansy and other bake-meats/ you shall understand this manner of service lasting to Pentecost save [except] fish days. Also take heed how you shall arrange these things before your sovereign/ first you shall see [to it] that there are green sauces of sorrel or of vines that is hold a sauce for the first course/ and you shall begin to raise/lift up the capon.
Here ends the feast of Easter until Pentecost.
And here begins the carving of all manner of fowls.
And here begins carving of all manner of fowls.
Sauce that capon.
Take up the capon and lift up the right leg and the right wing and so arrange him forth and lay him in the platter as he should flee and serve your sovereign/ and know well that capons or chickens be arranged after one, save the chickens shall be sauces with green sauce or verjuice.
Lift that swan.
Take and arrange him as a goose, but let him have a larger brawn and see that you have chawdron. [sauce made from entrails]
Alaye that pheasant. [“alaye” in this case meaning to cut or carve]
Take the pheasant and raise his legs and his wings as it were a hen and no sauce but only salt.
Wing that partridge.
Take a partridge and raise his legs and his wings as a hen/ and you mince him, sauce him with wine, powder of ginger and salt/ then set it upon a chafing dish of coals to warm and serve it.
Wing that quail.
Take quail and raise his legs and his wings as a hen and no sauce but salt.
Display that crane.
Take a crane and unfold his legs and cut off his wings by the joints/ then take up his wings and his legs and sauce him with powdered ginger, mustard, vinegar and salt.
Dismember that heron.
Take a heron and raise his legs and his wings as a crane and sauce him with vinegar, mustard, powdered ginger and salt.
Unjoint that bittern.
Take a bittern and raise his legs and his wings as a heron and [use] no sauce but [use] only salt.
Break that egret.
Take an egret and raise his legs and his wings as a heron and [use] no sauce but [only use] salt.
“Untache” [unattach?] that curlew.
Take a curlew and raise his legs and his wings as a hen and [use] no sauce but [only] salt.
Unattach that brew.
Take a brew and raise his legs and his wings in the same manner and [use] not sauce but [only] salt.
Unlace that cony. [a cony is a rabbit which is confusing with “reyse the wiynges” in the directions]
Take a cony and lay him on the back and cut away the vents [openings], then raise the wings and the sides and lay the whole chine [backbone with meat] and the sides together [with] vinegar sauce and powdered ginger.
Break that sarcell [a duck/teal from the French name]
Take a sarcell, or a teal, and raise his wings and his lags and don’t [use] sauce but only [use] salt.
Mince that plover.
Take a plover and raise his legs and his wings as a hen and don’t [use] sauce but only [use] salt.
Take a snipe and raise his wings and his legs and his shoulders as a plover and don’t [use] sauce but only [use] salt.
Thigh that woodcock.
Take a woodcock and raise his legs and his wings as a hen, this done, prepare the brain.
And here begins the feast from Pentecost to midsummer.
In the second course for the meats before-said, you shall take for your sauces: wine, ale, vinegar and powders after the meat be and ginger and cinnamon from Pentecost to the feast of Saint Johan Baptist.
The first course shall be beef, mutton sodden with capons or roasted/ and if the capons are sodden, arrange them in the manner aforesaid. And when he is roasted, you must cast on salt with wine or with ale/ then take the capon by the legs and cast on the sauce and break him out and lay him in a dish as he should flee [could be flee as if to leave, or “fly” being mush the same]. First you shall cut the right leg and the right shoulder/ and between the four members, lay the brawn [chopped meat] of the capon with the croup [likely the crop/gizzard] in the end, between the legs as it were possible to join it together again/ and other bake-meats after.
And in the second course, pottage shall be Jussell [egg/bread dish], charlet [meat dish with eggs and milk] or mortrus [dish with ground/minced meat] with young geese, veal, pork, pigeon, or chickens roasted with payne puffe,/fritters and other bake-meats after the ordinance of the book.
Also, the goose ought to be cut member to member beginning at the right leg and so fourth, under the right wing and not upon the joint above/ and it ought to be eaten with green garlic or with sorrel or tender vines or verjuice in summer season, after the pleasure of your sovereign.
Also, you shall understand that all manner of fowl that have whole feet [webbed feet] should be raised under the wing and not above.
Here ends the feast from Pentecost to midsummer.
And here begins from the feast of Saint John the Baptist unto Michaelmas.
In the first course, pottage, worts [vegetables/pot-herbs], gruel, and frumenty with venison and mortrus and pig legs with green sauce. Roasted capon, swan with chawdron [sauce made with entrails].
In the second course, pottage after the ordinance of the cooks with roasted mutton, veal, pork, chickens or endoured [hardened, likely with yolk] pigeons, heron, fritters or other bake-meats/ and take heed to the pheasant [that] he shall be arranged in the manner of a capon/ but it shall be done dry, without any moisture, and he shall be eaten with salt and powdered ginger. And heron shall be arranged in the same manner without any moisture and he should be eaten with salt and powder [spice, likely ginger as well]. Also, you shall understand that all manner of fowl having open claws, as a capon, shall be dressed and arranged as a capon and such other.
From the feast of Saint Michael unto the feast of Christmas.
In the first course, pottage, beef, mutton, bacon or legs of pork or with goose, capon, mallard, swan, or pheasant as it is beforesaid, with tarts or bake-meats or chines of pork.
In the second course, pottage, mortrus, or conys of “sewe” [some sort of broth or boiled dish]/ then roast flesh, mutton, pork, veal, pullets, chickins, pigeons, teals, widgeons [duck], mallards, partridge, woodcock, plover, bittern, curlew, heron/ venison roasted, great birds, snipes, fieldfares, thrushes, fritters, chewets [small pies], beef with sauce “gelopere” roasted with sauce “pegyll” and other bake-meats as it is aforesaid.
And if you carve before your lord or your lady any sodden flesh, carve away the skin above/ then carve reasonably of your flesh to your lord or lady and specially for ladies for they will soon be angry for their thoughts are soon changed/ and some lords will soon be pleased and some will not, as they be of complexion.
The goose and swan may be cut as you do [for] other fowls that have whole feet [webbed feet] or else as your lord or your lady will ask it. Also a swan with chawdron [sauce made with entrails], or pheasant, ought to be arranged as it is aforesaid/ but the skin must be taken off/ and when they are carved before your lord or your lady/ for generally the skin of all manner [of] cloven footed fowls is unwholesome/ and the skin of all manner of whole footed fowl is wholesome for to be eaten.
Also know you well that all manner [of] whole footed fowls that have their living upon the water [that] their skins are wholesome and clean because they are cleaned by the water/ and fish is their living. And if that they eat only stinking things, it is made so clean with the water that all the corruption is washed away from it. And the skin [missing in Myers transcription: of capon, hen or chicken for they eat foul things in the street and therefore] are not wholesome/ for it is not their kind to enter into the river to make their meat void of filth.
Mallard, goose or swan, they eat upon the land foul meat/ but immediately after their kind, they go into the river and there they cleanse them[selves] of their foul stink. A pheasant, as it is aforesaid/ but the skin is not wholesome/ then take the heads of all field birds and wood[land] birds as pheasant, peacock, partridge, woodcock and curlew for they ear in their degrees, foul things as worms, toads and other such [things].
Here ends the feasts and carving of flesh.
And here Begins the sewing [serving] of fish
The first course.
To go to sewing [serving] of fish, “musculade” [I could not find a clear definition, this is likely related to a dish with muscles], minnows in sewe [broth] of porpoise or of salmon, bacon herring with sugar, green fish, pike, lamprey, salens [possibly solen (genus), being a razor clam, as suggested as a possibility in various 19th century reprints of the book], porpoise roasted, bake[d] gurnard and bake[d] lamprey.
The second course.
White and red jelly, dates in comfit, conger [eel], salmon, dory, “brytte” [from old genus bryttus, various types of sunfish], turbot, halibut/ for standard bass, trout, mullet, chevene [European Chub], sole, eels and lampreys roast[ed], tench in jelly.
The third course.
Fresh sturgeon, bream, perch in jelly, a “Ioll” [possibly “joll” as in jowl or cheek or head] of salmon, sturgeon and whelks [sea snail], roasted apples and pears with sugar candy. Figs of “malyke” [possibly Málaga, a costal city in Spain, “great shyppe of Malyke” from “The Boke of Duke Huon of Burdeux” reprinted in English by John Bourchier and Lord Berners about 1534, printed by Wynkyn de Worde”] and raisins, dates capped in minced ginger/ wafers and Hippocras [if] they are agreeable/ [when] this feast is done, clear the table.
Here ends sewing [serving] of fish,
And here follows the carving of fish.
The carver of fish must see to “pessene” [pessen being peas] and frumenty the tail and the liver [that] you must see is there be a salt porpoise or seal “turrentyne” [according to Russel’s “Book of Nurture”, 1475, “torrentille” is a separate fish from the seal and the MED lists it as a type of fish, possibly being a tuna] and do after the fashion [made the same as] of venison./
lay baked herring whole upon your sovereigns trencher/
[for] white herring in a dish, open it by the back [and] pick out the bones and the roe and see [that] there is mustard.
Of salt fish, green fish, salt salmon and conger [eel], pare away the skin/ salt fish, stockfish, “marlynge” [merling “Merlangius merlangus” or whiting], mackerel and hake with butter, take away the bones and the skins.
[For] A pike, lay the womb [stomach] upon his trencher with enough pike sauce.
[for] A salt lamprey, “gobone” [fragment] it flat in 7 or 8 pieces and lay it [on a plate/platter] to your sovereign.
[for] A place, put out the water, then cross him with your knife, cast on salt and wine or ale.
Gunnard, “rochet” [Rouget or Red mullet], bream, “chevene” [listed as a chub in the MED, this is possible as “cheven” and chub appear to be listed as one fish in the “Treatyse of Fysshynge with an Angle”, 1450 in the line “For the cheven chobe the tenche the ele”], bass, mullet, roach, perch, sole, mackerel and whiting, haddock and cod [or “codling” as a young cod], raise them by the back and pick out the bones and cleans the “refet” [entrails of the fish] in the belly
Carp, bream, sole and trout, back and belly together.
Salmon, conger, sturgeon, turbot, “thorpole” [a “thirlepoole is mentioned in Harrison’s “The Description of England”, 1577, “all the great fish contained, as a seal, the dolphin, the porpoise, the thirlepoole, whale”], thornback [a skate/ray], houndfish and halibut, cut them in the dish [the same way] as the porpoise/
Tench in his sauce, cut it
Eels and lampreys roasted, pull of the skin, pick out the bones [and] add vinegar and powder [spices].
[For] a crab, break him into parts into a dish [and] make the shell clean and put in the meat back into the shell, tempering it with vinegar and powder [spices] then cover it with bread and send it to the kitchen to heat [up], then set it to you sovereign and break the great claws and lay them in a dish.
For a crayfish, dress him, thus separate him in half and slit the belly and take out the fish par[ing] away the red skin [removing the shell] and mince it fine, put vinegar in the dish and set it on the table without heat. [serve cold].
A head of sturgeon, cut it in thin morsels and lay it round about the dish.
Fresh lamprey, bake [and] open the pastry/ then take white bread and cut it thin and lay it in a dish, with a spoon, take out galentine [a galangal or ginger sauce] and lay it upon the bread with red wine and powdered cinnamon, then cut a piece of [the] lamprey and mince it finely and lay it in the galantine, then set it upon the fire to hear.
Fresh herring with salt and wine
Shrimp well picked
Flounder, gudgeons, minnows and muscles, eels and lampreys, sprats are good in broth/ “musculade” [most likely a dish with muscles] in worts [with vegetables/pot-herbs]/ oysters in civy [an onion sauce], oysters in gravy, minnows and porpoise, salmon and seal, white and red jelly, almond cream, dates in comfit, pears and quinces in syrup with parsley roots,”mortrus” [dish/sauce of pounded meat] of houndfish, “ryse standynge” [ryse could be “rice” or it could be “rise” where standing would likely mean “thickened” in this instance]
Here ends the carving of fish.
And here begins sauces for all manner of fish
Mustard is good for salt herring, salt fish, salt conger, salmon, “sparlyng” [possibly sprats or smelt], salt eel and ling.
vinegar is good with salt porpoise, “turrentyne” [possibly tuna], salt sturgeon, salt “threpole” [“thorpole”, “thirlepoole” mentioned earlier, unknown great fish likely a whale], salt whale/
lamprey with galantine/
Verjuice to roach, dace, bream, mullet, bass, flounder, sole, crab and chub with powdered cinnamon/
to thornback, herring, houndfish, haddock, whiting and cod, vinegar, powdered cinnamon and ginger
Green sauce is good with green fish and halibut, cuttlefish and fresh turbot.
Put not your green sauce away for it is good with mustard.
Here ends for all manner of sauces for fish according to their appetite.
The chamberlain must be diligent and cleanly in his office with his head combed and so his sovereign that he be not reckless and see that he has a clean shirt, breeches, petticoat [in this case, an undercoat worn by a man] and doublet/ then brush his hose [both] inside and out and see his shoes and slipper be made clean/ and at morning, when your sovereign will arise, warm his shirt by the fire/ and see [that] he has a foot sheet made in this manner. First set a chair by the fire with a cushion and [an]other under his feet/ then spread a sheet over the chair and have ready a kerchief and a comb/ then warm his petticoat, his doublet and his stomacher/ and then put on his hose and his shoes or slippers, then strike up his hose mannerly, and tie them up then lace his doublet hole by hole and lay the cloth about[around] his neck and comb his head/ then see [that] you have a basin and ewer with warm water and a towel and wash his hands/ then kneel upon your knee and ask your sovereign what robe he will wear and bring him such as your sovereign command and put it on him, then do [up] his girdle around him and take your leave mannerly and go to the church or chapel to your sovereigns closet [private room] and lay carpets and cushions and lay down his book of prayers/ then draw the curtains and take your leave goodly and go to your sovereigns chamber and cast all the clothes of his bed [his bedclothes] and beat the featherbed and the bolster/ but see [that] you waste no feathers, then shake the blanks and see [that] the sheets be fair and sweet or else see [that] you have clean sheets/ then make up his bed mannerly then lay the head sheet and the pillows/ then take up the towel and basin and lay carpets around the bed or windows and cupboards laid with carpets and cushions. Also see [that] there is a good fire burning bright, see [that] the house of easement [Russel’s book of nurture refers to the “priv-house of esement” being the privy]is sweet and clean and the privy board covered with a green cloth and a cushion/ then see [that] there is a blanket “donne” [possibly the colour dunn] or cotton for your sovereign/ and see [that] you have basin and ewer with water and a towel for your sovereign/ then take off his gown and bring him to the fire and take off his shoes and his hose, then take a fine kerchief of “reines” [a fine linen cloth] and comb his head and put on his kerchief and his bonnet/ then spread down his bed, lay the head sheet and the pillows/ and when your sovereign is to bed, draw the curtains/ then see [that] there be mortar [bowl, here set with oil for use as a lamp] or wax or candles/ then drive out dog or cat and see [that] there is a basin and urinal set near your sovereign/ then take your leave mannerly [so] that your sovereign may take his rest merrily.
Here ends of the chamberlain.
Here follows of the Marshal and the Usher.
The Marshal and the Usher must know all the estates of the church and high estate of a king with the royal blood.
The estate of a Pope has no peer
The estate of an Emperor is next
The estate of a king
The estate of a cardinal
The estate of a king’s son, a prince
The estate of an archbishop
The estate of a duke
The estate of a bishop
The estate of a Marquess
The estate of an earl
The estate of a viscount
The estate of a baron
The estate of an abbot with a miter [headdress]
The estate of the three chief Judges and the mayor of London.
The estate of a knight bachelor
The estate of the prior, dean, archdeacon or knight
The estate of the master of rolls
The estate of other Justices and barons of the checker
The estate of the mayor of Calays
The estate of a provincial a doctor divine [theologian]
The estate of a prothonotary, he is above the popes collector and a doctor of both laws.
The estate of a master of the chancery and other worshipful preachers of pardon and clerks that are graduated/ and all other orders of chaste persons and priests, worshipful merchants and gentlemen, all these may sit at the squires table.
An archbishop and duke may not keep the hall, but each estate by themselves in chamber or in pavilion that they may not see each other.
Bishops, Marquess, Earls and Viscounts, all these may sit two to a mess [dish/serving].
A baron and the mayor of London and three chief Judges and the speaker of the parliament and an abbot with a miter, all these may sit three or four at a mess.
And all other estates may sit three or four at a mess.
Also the Marshal must understand and know the royal blood [who has royal blood] for some lords are of royal blood and [are] of small livelihood. And some knights are wedded to a lady of royal blood, she shall keep the estate that she has before. And a lady of lower degree, shall keep the estate of her lords blood/ and therefore the royal blood shall have the reverence as I have showed you here before.
Also, a Marshal must take heed of the birth and next of line of the royal blood.
Also he must take heed of the kings officers of the Chancellor, Steward, Chamberlain, Treasurer and Controller.
Also, the Marshal must take heed unto strangers and put them to worship and reverence for, and they have good cheer, it is your sovereign’s honour.
Also, a Marshal must take heed if the king sends a knight [to] receive him as a baron/ and if he sends a squire [to] receive him as a knight/ and if he sends a yeoman [to] receive him as a squire/ and if he sends a groom [to] receive him as a yeoman.
Also, it is no rebuke to a knight to set a groom of the king at his table.
Here ends the book of service and carving and sewing and all manner of office in his kind unto a prince or any other estate and all the feasts in the year.