Milk, Butter and Cheese

Being that the Foure Bookes of Husbandry (1578, Barnabe Googe) is mainly about farming and keeping of produce, the section on cheese mainly concerns itself with the keeping of cheese, however the author does give a nod to the higher nutritional value of younger cheese as well as the desirability of the time towards softer and more delicate cheeses rather than the hard and stronger flavoured cheeses that resulted from long keeping (obviously a necessary result when keeping in storage)


Buffe– This would most likely be referring to Buffalo (not to be confused with Bison)
pappes– Teats
Meates– food, can include plant products



EVPHOR. You have for your part very well satisfied us, touchyng the good orderyng of your Cattell: there remaynes yet one thyng for you, whiche wee all fogate to speake of, and that is the orderyng of Mylke, our cheefest foode and sustenaunce.
HEDIO. Seeing that of this cattell whereof I have entreated, the profit of the Milke is not small, it is no great reason wee should overpasse the orderyng of the same: for Milke (as Varro sayth) of all liquid thinges wherewith wee feede, is the greatest nourisher. Milke differeth in goodness, accordyng to the nature of the bodies that geve it: as the Milke of the Women, of Rine, Sheepe, Goates, Asses, Mares, and Cammels: the greatest nourisher is Womans Milke, the next Goates Milke, whereby the Poets fame, that thier god Iupiter hymselfe, was nursed with Goates Milke: the Sweetest next to Womans milke, is the Cammels milke: the holsomest, is Asses Milke: the Asse as soon as she is with Colt, geveth Milke: the Cowe, never tyll she have Calved: most comfortable to the stomache, is Goates Milke, because hee rather feedesth on Bruttes and bowes, than upon grass. Cowe milke is most medecinable, and most of all looseth the belly. sheepes Milk is sweeter, and nourished more, but is not so good for the stomache, by reason it is fatter and grosser. All Milke that is milked in springtyme, is watrisher then the milke of sommer, as likewise is the milke of young Cattell: it is holsemest beying sodden, specially with the prebbles of the Sea. The Sheepe about Pontus, neare to the Ryver Astace, doo geve (as Plinie saith) black Milke. All Milk generally (as Dioscorides writeth) is of good nourishment, but silleth the stomache and the bellye, with Winde: that whiche is milked in the spring, is thumest, but looseth the Belly most.
The difference of Milke, is taken (as Varro sayth) of the pastures, the nature of the Cattell, and the milking. Of the Pasture, when the Cattell is fedde with Barly, Strawe, and all other hard and drye Meates, and this greatly nourisheth. For cattell feede of purging hearbes, as Cadamus in his booke de plantis teacheth, that if you will pourge Melancholy, you must feede your mylche Goate, or Asse, with Polipodi, and for all other humours Sene, for the Dropsie with Spurge, or Agarick: for cleansyng of the blood, with Funuitotye, or Hoppes: and if you will onely loose the belly with Mercury, or Mallowes, so farre Cordanus. Our countrymen doe cheefely commend for milke, the Pastured where groweth Spery, and Clavergrasse, and that is all bedeckt with yellowe flowres. For the Cattell, the difference is the betwixt the sicke and the healthy, the young, and the alde: and for the milkyng, that is best, that is not long kept after the milkyng, nor that is milked immediatly uppon the Calving, a grosse unholsome kind of Milke. To trye whether miulke me mingled or not, you shall take a sharpe Rushe, and puttyng it into the Milke, let it droppe from thence uppon your Nayle, and if the droppe runne abroade, it is a signe there is water in it: if it keepe together, it shewes it to bee pure and good.


Of Milke is made Butter, whose use (though it bee cheefely at this daye among the Fleminges) is yet a good and profitable foode in other countreys, and muche used of our olde Fathers, yea even of the verie Patriarches (as the Scriptures witnesseth) the commoditie thereof, besides many others, is the aswaging of hunger, and the preserving of strength: it is made in this sort. The milke, assone as it is milked, is put out of the Payle into Bowles, or Pannes, the best are earthen pannes, and those rather broade then deepe: this doone the seconde, or the third day, the Creame that s’wyins aloft, is fletted of, and put into a vessell rather deepe, then bigge, round and Cilinder fashion: although in some places they have other kinde of Charines lowe and flatte, wherein with often beatying and moovyng up and downe, they so shake the milke, as they sever the thinnest parte of from the thicke, whiche at the firste gather together in little crombles, and after with the continuance of the violent mooving, commeth to a whole wedge, or cake: this it is taken out, and either eaten freshe, or barrailed with Salt.


The Buttermilke that remayneth of the Butter, is either kepte for the famely, or geven to Calves and Hogges, as a daintie foode.


Cheese is also made of the Milke of Cattell, the Milke beeyng powred into a Vessell of earth, putting into it a little Rennet, the quantitie of a Walnutte, in a great vessell of milke, where by it turneth into Curd.
Varro doth better like the Rennet of the Leuret, or the Kydde, then the Lambes: howbeit: we commonly use the Calves Renner: others use sundry ather means onely with heate, warminf it in Tinne vesselles, and after dipping these Vessels in colde Water, whiche is the sweetest and cleanliest manner: others put in the seede of wylde Saffron, and being so turned, the Whay dooth greatly pourge fleame: others agayne use the mi(l)ke of the Figge tree, and then doth the Whay pourge both choler and fleame: some turne it with Oximell, or syrope of Vineger, whiche if of all other wayes the holsomest: some besides, use the little skinne of Birdes Guysards, and other, the flowres of wylde Thystles, or Hartichockes.

The newer and better the Milke is, the better wyll be the cheese: for made of two sorts of milke, or milke that is to neare fleeted, it soon sowreth, and wareth hard and nought, and is not to enduce any whyle. Agayne, being made of fatte and newe Milke, it will very long endure, and long continueth in his fatness and softnesse: about a two or three houres after you have put in your Rennet, the Milke commeth to a Curd, whiche is straight wayes put into Formes, or Cheesefattes, and pressed: or if they bee but small, they are only pressed with the hand. If they be of any quantitie, they have great weyght uppon them, it is very needefull you presse out the Whay with as muche speede as you can, and so sever it from the curd, and not to let it lye slowly drayning of it selfe. Those that make greate Cheeses, have mouldes for the purpose, and weightes and presses answerable. After this, they take them out of the Press, and laye them uppon Hardelles, or fayre smothe Tables, in a shadowy and colde place, and close frow all windes, springling them all over with Salt, that they may sweate out all their sourenesse, laying them so, as they touche not one the other. When they bee nowe wel hardned and thickned, they are taken up, and pressed agayne with greater weyghtes, and rubbed over with parched Salte, and after layd in presse againe, whereby it is thought they will neyther have eyes, nor be over drie: whiche saltes hapneth to rome when they be either not well pressed, or too muche salted.

Some use to put into the borrome of their Payles, the greene kernelles of the Pine apple, and milking into them, doo cause it so in turne. You may also cause your Cheese to relishe of what soever you will, as Pepper, or any other Spice: but Columella countes that for the best Cheese, that hath least mixture in it. The Strongest Cheese, and hardest of digestion, are those that are made of Buffes Milke, the next are such as are made of the Milk of Ewes, but the myldest, and lightest of digestion, are those that are made of Goates Milke: the Cheese that is made of mares Milke, is of the same quantitie that the Buffe Cheese is. There is Cheese also makde of Cammels Milke, and of Asse Milke: the Cheeses that are made of Buffes Milke, are at Rome in great estimation of all other cattell. Suche as are touched both above and beneath, and have more then soure pappes, you can make no Cheese of their Milke, for it will never curd. In our dayes, the best Cheeses are counted the Parmasines, made about the Ryver of Po, esteemed for their greatnesse, and dayntinesse, of whiche you shall have brought int other countreys that way above threescore pounde. Next are commended the Holland Cheese, the Cheese of Normandy, and the English Cheese. In England, the best Cheese is the Chesshyre, and the Shropshyre, then the Banbury Cheese, next the Suffolke, and the Essex Cheese, and the verie worst the Kentish Cheese. The places where the beste Cheese is made, appeareth by this alde English Distinchon, better sensed, then footed:
Banbury, Langtony, Suffolke good Cheese, Essex go though by, Shropshyre, cum Cheshyre, Hertford may well with the best peere.

Of the discommoditie of Essex Cheese, our Englishe Martiall John Haywood, thus meerily wryteth:
I never saw Banbury Cheese thicke yenough
But I have seen Essex Cheese quicke yenough.

Cheese they say will beste endure, and is longest preserved, if you keepe them in heapes of Pulse, or Wheate, and if you steepe your Rennet in juyce of Byrche, you shall bee sure to have neither Myte nor Creeper in your cheese. The Cheese that is soft and newe, doth more nourishe then the dry, and be more comfortable to the stomoack, not long in digesting: the old is contrary, according to the proverbe, No Cheese good but the new. Old Cheese will become new in taste, if you lay them in Time, Vinegar, or in Wine: if through age it bee hard and bitter, let it be rubed over with Meale and undried Barley, and then dipt in water, and after, the outer rinde scraped of. We have oft times, proved, that hard Cheese wrapped in Cloutes wet in Vineger, or Wine, and oftentimes sprinkled with wine, and so layde up, returne to a softness, and a verie pleasant taste. Some lay it in Leaven, covering it close therewith, and thereby make it soft. It is reported, that Zoroastes lived twentie yeeres in wilderness with Cheese so ordered, as it never waxed olde.

EVPHOR. Of the Whay that commeth from the Cheese, being sodde with soft fyre, rill the fatnesse of the Cheese swim aloft, are made Welcurds:
HEDIO. You were moont to love them well.
EVMEVS. I doo in deede, specially if there be good store of newe milke put into the Whay.
The olde wryters doo teache the making of a kinde of white meate, not much unlike to Welcurdes, which they called Melcan, and made it in this sort. Thei put into a newe earthen vessell Vinegar, and suffered it to boyle softly upon the fyre, till the vessell had drunke up the Vineger, and into that vessell thei powred in milke, & set it where it might stand stedfast, whereby they had within a while their desire. But me thinketh I have for my part done yeough, it commet now to your turne EV MEVS to goe forward with the rest.

Entry on Swine

From the Four Books of Husbandry (1578, Googe)

This has been typed out from the book true to the spelling (with the odd possibly typo or misread letter). The text below has also been divided up into sections, however in the original book, each line simply moves into the next with the occasional reference note in the margin.

Some words:
Meat: as a food, this does not necessarily mean flesh but can include plant matter as well
Bacon: in this text there is no differentiation between salt cured meats, it is simply bacon
Pappes: Sows teats
Cattell: referring to domesticated animals, not necessarily bovine

I do hope you enjoy this as much as I had, exaggerations and an interesting look as what people desired in swine, what they thought about swine and how they kept them.

Pig Slaughter, from the Da Costa Hours, 1515
Pig Slaughter, from the Da Costa Hours, 1515

“That the keeping of Swine belongeth to husbandrie, doth evidently appeare by the saying of the auncient husbandes, counting him a slouthfull and an unthriftie husband, that hath his Bacon rather from the Butcher, then from his owne Roofe: for there aryseth as greate prodife many tymes to us of our owne Swyne, as dooth to you that bee keepers of greater cattell of your flockes: for is Bacon bee away, the cheefest supporter of the husbanmans kitchin is wantying. and wheras Swines flesh semeth abonmable to the foolish Jewes, I beleeve verily they never tasted the Gamonds of Fraunce, so highly commended by Varre, Strabe, Athenens, and other learned wryters: which I suppose were no other but the Flitthes of the westphaly, so greatly esteemed as this day, not onely in Germany, but in Rome, and that they were called by the names of Celtick Gamonds, because the old wryters, specially the Greeks, called all the countrys on this side the Alpes, both Fenche and Dutch, by the name of Celtyck. Surely there is no beast besides, that makes more dayntie dishes, there is in hym neare fiftie different tastes, where everie other beast hath but on: and hereof came at first the sharpe law of the Censores, forbindying it to be used at sappers, the Udders, the stones, the trypes, and the forepart of the heads of Swyne, (as Plinie witnesseth). And most apparant is it, that not only the Frenche, and the dutche in those dayes, but also the Italians, and the Greekes, nourished greate heardes of Swyne. Among the Greekes, Homer maketh mention of one of my name, that had twelve hogsties, everie stye conteyning fiftie porklinges, and Polybius writeth, or more then a thousand to be rered at a tyme among the ancient Italians, Tuskans, and French, Varre accounteth a hundred bu a small heard. Who so will nourishe Hogges, must have regard both to the fayrenesse, and the age: Varro addeth beside, the nature of the kinde, and the country. and because the young doo commonly resemble their parents, hee would have you choose such as are fayre,”

*(descriptions of swine starts here)*

“and large bodied, and whiche make most to the matter, as fruitefull as may bee: whiche Varro, dooth cheefely commend chose that be on one colour, their bristelles would be thicke, hard, and blacke, if it bee in a colde countrey: if in a temperate, you may nourish the smooth. Thir proportion would be long, large syded and bellyed, wide buttocked, short legged, & footed, bigge necked, and well brawned, short groyned, and turnyng upwarde, his tayle wrynckled. The kinde is most commended, that bringeth may Pigges, the country that breedeth large and greate:”

*(ages start here)*

“the best age for the Boar, is a yeere old, though at halfe a yeere old they are able to serve a Sowe: one Boare is yenough for tenne Sowes and more. The Sowe is sufficient to bring Pigges at a yeere olde, and so for seven yeeres after, the fruitfuller she is, the sooner she wareth olde: at her fyrste farrowyng, you shall easely see what number she will bryng foorth: for shee will not muche differ in the other. The best kinde of Sowes have twelve Pappes, the common sort tenne, or not so may. Every Pigge dooth knowe his owne pappe that hee was borne to, and sucketh onely that, and none other: if you take away the Pigge, the pappe dryeth, as both Plinie, and experience sheweth. They were wont to be bought and bargained for in this sorte. Doo you warrant that these Swyne and found, that I shall well enioye them, that you will answere the faulted, and that they be of a healthy breede:”

*(habitat and food in the wild)*

“A wet moorish ground, is meetest for this cattell, for he delighteth no in water, but in durt and myre, so much (as Varro writeth) that the Woolfe, as soon as he hath caught a Sowe, draggeth her to the water, her ause his teeth are not able to abide the heate of her flesh. And although this beast will away with any ground, (for he feedeth both in mount aynes, champion, and marish) yet his cheege delight is in the Woods that is full of Quagmires, where there groweth store of Oke, Corke, Beech, Mastholme, wyld Olyves, wild Dates, Haselnuttes, Crabbe trees, Plome trees, and Chery trees: for these doo fruite divers tymes, and feed the heards, almost all the whole yeere. Where there wanteth Wooddes, they must bee fedde from the ground, wherein a Marrishe is to be preffered before a drye ground, that they may mousell in the Marsh, digge up woormes, wallowe in the myre, and toomble in the puddeles of water, whiche in sommer is most needefulll. they also hunt after rootes, specially Fearne rootes, and the rooted of Bullrushes, Rushes, and Sedges, beside good grasse well feedeth a Swyne, and Orchardes of Cheries, Plomes, Apples, and Nuttes. and notwithstandyng all this the Barne,”

*(feeding and care of swine starts here)*

“for you must feede them often by hand, when meate fayles abroade, and therefore you must preserve store of Acorns, in Cestornes, in the water, or dried uppon smoky Floores, also Beanes, Pease, and tares must be geven them, and not so muche as Barly spared: for this kinde of feedyng dooth make them fayre, and not onely fattes them, but geveth the fleshe a pleasaunt taste. When they are yet young and sucke, both they, and their dammes must be well sedde, they must be put to feede early in the mornyng afore the heate of the sunne, and after kept in shadowy places, where there is a good store of Water. Afore they goe to pasture, they must be medecined, least the Grasse skarre them to much, by whiche they withe greatly weakened. In Winter they must not be put abroad, till the frost bee of the ground, and the use thawed. and though the swyne will runne at the knowned voyce of their Swyneheard, yet Varro will have them be brought both to pasture, and homeward, with the sound of a horne: their meate must be geven them skattered thinne, so shall both lesse duffice, and the greater shall not harme the smaller: as soone as they heare the Horne, though they bee veber so farre of in the Woods, they come runnyng with all haste. Polybius telleth, that the Italians use not to follow their heardes, as the Greekes and other doo, but goyng a pretie waye before them, they blow their Horned, their Heardes being acquainted with the clast doo follow them in great order. They doo so well knowe and obay the call of the swyneheard, if we may beleeve Aliannus, that when certaine Rovers landing uppon the coast of Tuskan, and taking great numbers of them out of their styes, caried them aboord, the theeves havying wayed up their anker, and beyng under sayle, the Swyne uppon the hearyng of their keepers voyce, suddenly ran to the one side of the ship, and overturned her, whereby (the Pirates drowned) the Swyne came safe to land to their maisters. As thatte here told you of the condicions of the Boar and the Sowe, and of their keeping, so wil I nowe shewe you the maner of their breeding.”

*(breeding start here)*

“The bremyng tyme is reckoned to be from winter, till the twelfth of March, so shall you have them to farrowe in sommer: for the Sowe goyng foure monethes with pigge, farroweth in the fifth. Shee is with pigge at the first breming, but they use to let them goe often to Boare, because they soone miscarry. And if you will have two farrowes in one yeere, you must put your Sowe to Boare in Februarie, or January, that she may farrowe by Aprill, or May, when as there is good pasture abroade, and milke is in his cheese strength: and when they bee weaned, they may well feede upon straw, and grottens, and after, the Sowe may farrow agayne in the ende of Autumne: for Varro saith, her farrowing times are so divided for the nonce, as she may farrowe twyse a yere, whyle the hath foure moneths to beare them, and two to feede them. As soone as they be with Pigge, you must keepe the Boare from them: for with his vurulinesse, hee maketh them to cast. Young Swine for breede, must not bee lesse then a yere olde, as Varro would have it: howbeit, they behin as eight moneths, and continue seven yeres. The Boare beginneth at eight moneths, or sixe, and continueth well foure yeeres, and after at three or foure yeeres olde you may geld them, and fatte them. Some would not have you keepe by above eight, others not above sixe: not that the Sowe is able to keep no more, but that she that keepeth more, soon faileth. Varro reporteth, that the Sowe of AEneas Lauinus, farrowed at one tyme thirtie white Pigges: but it is monstrous when shee farroweth more then she hath Pappes. Everie Sowe must have her stye by herselfe when shee hath farrowed, and not suffered to goe with the whole heard, as other cattell are, but little Cotes to me made for them, wherein they may bee kept either farrowing, or with farowe: for Swine, if they lye together in any number, beyng commonly ill manered, doo lye one upon the other, whereby they hurt such as are with pigge. And therefore you must have severall styes where they may frarrowe, a made hye, that the Swoe ran not great out: for covered they must not bee by no meanes, that the swineheard may looke that the Sowe overlay non of them, and to see what they want, that hee may make it cleane, as as oft as he cleanseth it, he must strawe sand, or suche like, to dry up the moysture: for though she be but a swinish creature, yet loveth shee to have her Chamber cleane. When shee hath farrowed, she requireth greater quantitie of meate, whereby she may geve the more Milke, speciallie Barley steeped in Water, or ground & tempered with water. And if you have not good store of meate, your best is to sell the Pigges: so shall the damme being delivered of her burden, bee sooner with farrowe agayne. Such as are farrowed in winter, are commonly poore and wretched, both because of the cold, and that their dammes do not like them for wanting of milke, & biting their pappes. If the Sowe eate her pigs, it is no wonder, for swyne of all other beastes, can most awaye with hunger, whiche when it provokethm, they eate not onely their owne, but young, children, which not long since happened, in Sussex, to the pitifull discomfort of the Parent. They suffer not the Sowe to goe abroade in tenne dayes after her farrowing, except it be to drinke: after, they suffer her to go about the house, that she may the better geve milke. When the Pigges ware greate, they desire to goe abroade with their dammes, at whiche tyme they are deffe by them selves aparte, to the ende they may the sooner foreat their Mother: which they will doo in tenne dayes. It behoueth the swyneheard to be carefull and diligent about his charge, that he have in memory everie one of them, both olde and young, that he consider every farrow, and shutte up those that be great with Pigge, that they¬†may farrow in their Scye. He must have speciall regard of every young Pigge, that every one of them bee brought up under their one damme: for if they geat out of the Stye, they straightwayes mingle one companie with an other, whereby the poore Sowe is forced to geve milke many tymes, to more Pigges then her owne: and therefore the swyneheard muste shutte up every damme with her owne Pigges. And if his memory serve not to knowe them all, let hym pitch every Sowe and her Pigs with a severall marke: for in a greate number it shall behoove hym so to doo, for confounding hus memory, The olde husbands observed alwayes twoo tyines in the yeere for cuttyng of them, the spring, and the fall of the leade, whereby they anoyded the danger, both of the heate, and the cold. The Bore Pigges they curre when they were sixe monthes olde, and againe at doure yeere olde, to make them fat, making two woundes, and taking out the stone of every side: or ells when you have taken out one stone, you must thrust your Knife agayne into the wounde, and cutting asunder the skinne bemixt both the stones, drawe out with your fingers the other, so shall you make but one skarre, but this kinde of cuttyng is somewhat more dangerous. The Sowes are sayd by burning the Matrixe with an iron, and the skarre healed up, whereby they will both have no more Pigs, and be the fatter. Aristotle, & following him Plinie, would have the Sowe after two dayes fasting, hanged up by the fore Legs, and so cut, whereby she will be the sooner fat: but Jiudge it better to cur them when they be young, at two monethes olde, or younger, for so are they in least jeopardy. After they be cut, you must keepe them from drinke, and geve them but little meate: the wound must be annoynted with freshe butter, and sowed up.”

*(here starts the wellness/sickness of swine)*

“as the wrystlyng and turnyng up of the tayle, is a signe of a sounde Hogge, so be there certaine and assured signes of their sucknesse: for if you plucke of the Bristles from the backe, and finde that their rotes have blood in them, if shewes the swyne is not well. Besides, if your Hogges be sicke, or taken with a Fever, they hanf their heades a toneside, and suddenly as they runne abroade, they stay, and beyng taken with a turnyng giddinesse, they fall downe: and therefore you must marke “well on whiche side they hand their heades, that you may cur the eare of the contrarie side to let them blood: and under the tayle beside, twoo inches from the Roompe, you shall strike the vaine, whiche there is easely to be seen: for the bigness of it, you must first beate it with a little sticke, and after is swelleth with the beatyng, open it with your Knife, and havyng bledde sufficiently, binde it up with the rinde of Willow, or Eleme: aqfter this, keepe them up in the house a day or two, and geve them warme water, with a good quantity of Barley flowre.”

*(disease¬†and remedies…)*

“There is a kind of disease amongst Swyne (though other wise they bee healthy and fatte (wherein their fleshe is all infected with little graines as bigge as Peason: the Greekes call them Chalazos, and we at this day measled Swyne, which you shall sone perceyve by the sight of the tongue, and the horseness of their voyce: this disease they say, is naturall unto them, from whiche you shall preseve them, if you nayle certayne plates of lead in the bottome of their Trough. You shall also keepe them from this disease, if you geve them to drink, the Roote of Briony: the generall and common remedie, is Allonie, Brimstone, and Bay berries, of eache alike: adde thereonto a handfull of Soote, beate them all togeather, and put them in a Bagge, whiche bagge you shall cast into their water when they drinke, and reue it twyse in the yeere.”

*(fattening and slaughter, in the form of conversation)*

“EV PHOR, I pray you EV MEVS do no dissemble, but tell us truely hou you doo to have your Hogges so fatte. I beleeve you are in the Barne sometime when you should not be.

EV MEVS, What meanes soever I use in ordyng my flocke, is not to my masters losse, no more then is your diligence, whereby you bryng your cattell to be so fayre. I told you before, that hee was an unthryftie husband that had his Bacon from the shambles, and not of his owne provision: and besides my maisters the Phisitions give great commendations to hogs fleshe, in that it hath suche a nearenesse and agreement with out bodyes, neither is there (as I sayde before) a beast that makes more dishes. And therefore it is greatly for profite, to have the husbandmans kitchen whell stored with Bacon, wherrwith hee may sustaine his household all the whole yeere. You shall easely (though woods be wanting) find Barnes, Marches, and Corne feeldes to feed them with. They will be fatte (as Plinie supposeth) in threescore dayes, specially if they bee kept from meate three dayes before you feede them: they are fatted with Barley, Otes, or other Corne, or Pulse: and that fleshe is better, and of more substance that is fed with Acornes, then that whiche is fatted with either Beechmast, or Chestnutte. This beast will in tyme bee so fatte, as hee will bee able neighter to goe, nor stande Yea Warre tells, that there was seene in arcadia a Sowe so fatte, that she was not only unable to ryse, but suffered a Mouse to make her Nest in her body, and to lay her young there. The same Varra reporteth, that there was sent to Volumius a Senatour of Rome, a peece of Porkey of two Ribs, that wayed three and twentie pound: the thickness of whiche Sowe from the skinne to the Ribbe, was one foote and three inches. Your best is to put to fatting your Swyne of two or three yeeres olde: for if they be younger, their growing will hynder their feeding. To keep your Bacon any long time, you must use greate diligence in the saltyng and drying of it, whereby you shall have it both handsomer and sweeter, and besides to continue divers yeers to serve the turne, if scarsitie happen. Your Hogge beeyng in this sort fatted, you must shut up, and not suffer him to drinke the day before you kill hym, whereby the fleshe will be the dryer. When you have this after his thrydt killed hym, you shall either skalde hym with water, or with a flame made with krawe, or stickes, synge hym: for the maner of such as flea hym, I lyke not. After that, hangyng hym up by the Heeles, you shall pluck out hys bowels, and put them to dressing: his fleshe being cold, and hard, you shall lay uppon a table, and cuttyng out the Head, the Gammon and the fleetches, pouder them with salt, thrustyng greate store thereof in every place, specially where the bones bee: that donne, put it into your pouldring tubbe, strowyng salt yenough under it: some woulde have you salt in the wane of the Moone. Before you pouder it, you must presse and drye out all the blood and the Water. Some before they Salt it, doo plucke out the bones, thinking it the best way for preserving it, and to Keepe it longest sweet. Others agayne doo not strayghtways put it into the pouldering tubbe, but doo leave it upon a Table for ten dayes after, and then hang it up in the pure ayre, to dryie in the larde. And when it hath been dried in the winde certaine dayes, by little and little they let the smoke come to it, and afterwards more aboundantly. The Bacon will be the sweeter, if beside the smoke, the winde may come to it: if you hang it in the greate smoke at the first, it will be rustie. Dydimus sayth, that the Bacon will long continue sweet, if after the dressing, coolyng, and drying, it be handed up in the shaddowy and moyst places, rather toward the North, then toward the South, and that it will be sweeter, if it be covered with Snowe, and Chaffe: the Tubbes that you poulder in, must bee suche as have had Oyle in? rather then those that have had Vineger. Although I have before spoken of the woorthyness and antiquitie, of Shepheardes, and heardsmen, yes must There say, that it is in vayne to medale with the ordering and keeping of cattell, except you have handsome, and skilfull men that may take the charge. For the knowledge of keeping of cattell hath a disipline, wherein a man must from his very Childhood bee brought up: and surlie it is meete that the husband, or Bayliffe, have been brought up, or tryned in all these trades, and to come by degrees to his maisters pryse…..”